Sex, Lies, and Violence in the Films about Teachers and Students
At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries and essentially in the 21st century, heterosexual risks in teaching, on the one hand, shifted towards the age reduction of students, and on the other hand, to a considerable degree began to resemble erotic thrillers.
S.V. Kudryavtsev is also right saying that “this unpretentious comedy still has serious pretentions in the attempt to please political correctness not only to rehabilitate the sexual minorities (who in such a way may soon turn into majority!), who used to be condemned or humorously presented in the Hollywood cinema. The film by F. Oz contains an appeal to honest citizens from the screen (what if somebody in the cinema hall — there is no telling what could happen — has enough courage) to openly confess their homosexual orientation. No doubt, there is nothing wrong about it, since that perfectly complies with the current trend in the mainstream when the largest film companies began to shoot films about gays and their production started to meet great success” (Kudryavtsev, 2008).
The image of the teacher in the Western cinematograph in the context of choosing between the truth and lies as a priority
The first part of a school drama The Emperor’s Club (USA, 2002) is a typical example of a standard film story about outstanding teachers whose knowledge, honesty, selflessness and authority turn a difficult and ordinary class into a creative team of “pupils of science” (Ebert, 2002; LaSalle, 2002). But this drama about a history teacher turns out to be double-bottomed: the honest teacher, whose role was brilliantly played by Kevin Kline, appears to be capable of concealing the truth and a compromise lie, and that looks quite realistic, and at the same time he breaks the sustainable stereotypes of and Blackboard Jungle To Sir, with Love…
Media violence at school and university has long been attracting Western film makers, and there are some reasons for it — every year mass media report on dozens of such cases, especially in the USA where firearms are available for many people.
It is possible to agree with a viewpoint of B. Crowther: the classroom in the film resembles a massacre or a battlefield, and the plot itself touches “a problem of great contemporary concern” (Crowther, 1955). Just remember the scene when a pupil with a knife attacks the teacher at the blackboard. “But the manner in which the teacher eventually gains the respect of his whole class is simply by disarming the toughest hoodlum. This seems a bitter and superficial solution for the problem at hand” (Crowther, 1955).
And one more thing: the teacher is shown as a noble personality, but his actions prove that he is just a little better than the local bandits (Rhodes, 1997; Cavagna, 1999; Ebert, 1997).
Scientists from the University of California performed an experiment in April, 1967: high school history teacher R. Jones wanted to prove in the classroom that the fascism threat had not vanished but still exists in everybody. Instead of lessons he offered his students to play in a German school of the Nazi time. Very soon a lot of students got used to neo-Nazi ideas and rules of conduct (Martínez-Salanova, 2010, p. 58; Shiyanov, 2008).
A teacher as a threat to people around — isn’t it a good idea for a film story? Such a story was told in Tony Richardson’s dark drama Mademoiselle (UK-France, 1966) with brilliant Jeanne Moreau playing a guileful and sophisticated furious teacher. R. Ebert called this film “murky, disjointed and unbearably tedious” (Ebert, 1967), whereas V. Baer called the movie — “an allegory of the nightmare of human existence” (Baer, 1967).
Here “W. Allen is a little more straightforward than usual: apart from the fact that the protagonist professionally quotes Sartre and Kierkegaard, he reads “Crime and Punishment” to tatters. The author also changes his traditional sources of inspiration — instead of his favourite Ingmar Bergman he cites from A. Hitchcock’s “Strangers on a Train” in the final episode. Everything would be fine, but the fans of the film director will easily notice that the characters raise a distinct irritation (which is quite understandable) instead of the usual ironical sympathy” (Zabaluev, 2015).
A comparative analysis of plots, characters and ideology of Western films about school and university teachers leads to the conclusion that their media stereotypes have substantial similarity. A content analysis of the films enables to present their basic plot schemes as follows.
Some examples of film structures of Western dramas about school and university teachers
Title of the film: Private Lessons / Cours prive’. France, 1986 Director: Pierre Granier-Deferre. .
Some examples of film structures of Western melodramas about school and university teachers
Some examples of film structures of Western comedies about school and university teachers
Some examples of film structures of Western thrillers or detectives about school and university teachers
Title of the film: Devil in the Flesh . USA, 1998 Director: Steve Cohen. .
Some examples of film structures of Western science fiction and horror films about school and university teachers
The review and analysis of 1300 Western films about school and university, study of more than 7000 published materials (books, research articles and film reviews) on the declared topic have enabled us to reveal the following basic types of teachers’ images in the Western cinematography:
- positive (super)hero (often a male, recently employed as a school teacher) who reeducates an aggressive and disobedient class (Ayers, 1994; Beyerbach, 2005; Beyerbach, 2005; Burbach & Figgins, 1993; Considine, 1985; Dalton, 2004; Edelman, 1983; Farber & Holm, 1994; Farhi, 1999; Giroux, 1993; 1997; Joseph & Burnaford, 1994; Reyes, & Rios, 2003; Ryan, 2008; Trier, 2000; 2001; Umphlett, 1984);
- a negative personage who hates students (in some cases, he/she can be even a robot-killer or an alien) (Joseph & Burnaford, 1994; Long, 1996; Ryan, 2008; Trier, 2000; 2001);
- a loser / clown, outsider bored with his job (Bulman, 2005; Farber & Holm, 1994; Hill, 1995; Hinton, 1994; Joseph & Burnaford, 1994; Lafferty, 1945; Long, 1996; McCullick, Belcher, Hardin & Hardin, 2003; Reynolds, 2007; 2009; 2014; 2015; Ryan, 2008; Trier, 2000; 2001; Umphlett, 1984);
- a bureaucrat-administrator (Joseph & Burnaford, 1994; Long, 1996; Ryan, 2008; Trier, 2000; 2001; Wells & Serman, 1998).
The teacher’s image on the Western screen has significantly transformed over time. The self-censorship that existed practically till the 1960s did not allow film makers to touch upon such radical aspects as violence, sex, obscene language, racial and religious problems in schools and universities. But after the lifting of the Hays Code and the advent of the so-called sexual revolution of the 1970s the Western screen began to successively exploit the topics forbidden before, thus creating new horrifying narrative moves every year. On the other hand, the tendency for reflection on the pedagogical mission and real professional challenges involved stills remains in the Western cinematography.
Such hermeneutic analysis of Western audiovisual media texts about school and university allowed the authors to integrate the structure of media stereotypes of school and university teachers in films as follows:
Stereotype structure of Western films about school and university teachers
Alexander Fedorov, Anastasia Levitskaya, Galina Mikhaleva
This research was funded by the grant of the Russian Science Foundation (RSF, project №17–18–01001) at the Rostov State University of Economics. Project theme: “School and university in the mirror of Soviet, Russian and Western audiovisual media texts”. Head of the project is professor A.V. Fedorov.
Aaronson, Carter & Howel, 1995 — Aaronson, C., Carter, J., & Howel, M. (1995). Preparing Monocultural Teachers for a Multicultural World: Attitudes Toward Inner-City Schools. Equity and Excellence in Education, 28(1), 5–9.
Anderson, 2010 — Anderson, J.M. (2010). Loose Screws. Combustible Celluloid. 3.09.2010. http://www.combustiblecelluloid.com/digitalwatch/loosescrews.shtml
Ayers 1994 — Ayers, W. (1994). A Teacher Ain’t Nothin’ But a Hero: Teachers and Teaching in Film. In: Joseph, P., and Burnaford, G. (Eds.). Images of Schoolteachers in Twentieth-Century America. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 147–156.
Baer, 1967 — Baer, V. (1967). Der Schöne und die Bestie. Der Tagesspiegel, 1 Feb.
Baer, 1998 — Bauer, D.M. (1998). Indecent Proposals: Teachers in the Movies. College English, Vol. 60, 3, 301–317.
Bass, 1970 — Bass, A.T. (1970). The teacher as portrayed in fiction. Contemporary Education, 42(1), 14–20.
Bazalgette, 1995 — Bazalgette, C. (1995). Key Aspects of Media Education. Moscow: Association for Film Education.
Beyerbach, 2005 — Beyerbach, B. (2005). Themes in sixty years of teachers in film: Fast times, Dangerous minds, Stand on me. Educational Studies, 37(3), 267–285.
Beylie, 1994 — Beylie, C. (1994). Les films-clés du sinéma. Paris: Bordas.
Beylie, 1998 — Beylie, С. (1998). Cinema: films that have become events. St. Petersburg: Academic Project, 105–106.
Bitel, 2010 — Bitel, A. (2010). Skirt Day. Eye for Film. 12.11.2010. http://www.eyeforfilm.co.uk/review/skirt-day-film-review-by-anton-bitel
Boys, 1946 — Boys, R.C. (1946). The American college in fiction. College English, 7(7), 379–387.
Bradshaw, 2008 — Bradshaw, P. (2008). The Wave. The Guardian. 19.09.2008. https://www.theguardian.com/film/2008/sep/19/drama.worldcinema1
Brown, 2015 — Brown, T. (2015). Teachers on film. In: Jubas, K., Taber, N. & Brown, T. (Eds.). Popular Culture as Pedagogy.
Boston: Sense Publishers, 160 p.
Buckle, 2010 — Buckle, C. (2010). Skirt Day. The Skinny. 10.12.2010. http://www.theskinny.co.uk/film/new-releases/skirt-day
Bulman, 2005 — Bulman, R.C. (2005). Hollywood goes to high school: Cinema, schools, and American culture. New York: Worth Publishers.
Burbach & Figgins, 1993 — Burbach, H. J. & Figgins, M. A. (1993). A thematic profile of the images of teachers in film. Teacher Education Quarterly, 20(2), 65–75.
Carey, 1988 — Carey, J.W. (Ed.). (1988). Media, myths, and narratives: Television and the press. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Cavagna, 1999 — Cavagna, C. (1999). One Eight Seven. About film. http://www.aboutfilm.com/movies/o/187.htm
Conklin, 2008 — Conklin, J.E. (2008). Campus life in the movies: A critical survey from the silent era to the present. Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Company.
Considine, 1985 — Considine, D.M. (1985). The cinema of adolescence. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company Inc., Publishers.
Crowther, 1955 — Crowther, B. (1955). Delinquency Shown in Powerful Film. The New York Times. 21.03.1955. http://www.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9803E1DE153EE53ABC4951DFB566838E649EDE&partner=Rotten%2520Tomatoes
Crowther, 1962 — Crowther, B. (1962). The Children’s Hour (1961). The New York Times. 15.03.1962.
Crowther, 1967 — Crowther, B. (1967). Screen: Poitier Meets the Cockneys: He Plays Teacher Who Wins Pupils Over. The New York Times.15.06.1967.http://www.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9E06E3DF103AE63ABC4D52DFB066838C679EDE&partner=Rotten%2520Tomatoes
Crume,1988 — Crume, M.A.T. (1988). Images of teachers in novels and films for the adolescent, 1980–1987. Ph.D. Dis. University of Florida.
Dalton, 2004 — Dalton, M.M. (2004). The Hollywood curriculum: Teachers in the movies. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc.
Dalton, 2005 — Dalton, M.M. (2005). Our Miss Brooks: Situating gender in teacher sitcoms. In: Dalton, M.M. & Linder, L.R. (Eds.). The sitcom reader: America viewed and skewed . Albany: State University of New York Press, 99–109.
Debruge, 2013 — Debruge, P. (2013). A Teacher. Variety. 18.01.2013. http://variety.com/2013/film/markets-festivals/a-teacher-1117949010/
Doherty, 2003 — Doherty, T.P. (2003). Cold war, cool medium: Television, McCarthyism, and American culture. New York: Columbia University Press.
Ebert, 1967 — Ebert, R. (1967). Mademoiselle. Roger Ebert.com. 30.11.1967. https://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/mademoiselle-1967
Ebert, 1967 — Ebert, R. (1967). Up the Down Staircase. Roger Ebert.com. 25.07.1967. http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/187-1997
Ebert, 1986 — Ebert, R. (1986). Children of a Lesser God. Roger Ebert.com. 3.10.1986. http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/children-of-a-lesser-god-1986
Ebert, 1988 — Ebert, R. (1988). Stand and Deliver. Roger Ebert.com. 15.04.1988. http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/stand-and-deliver-1988
Ebert, 1989 — Ebert, R. (1989). Lean on Me. Roger Ebert.com. 3.03.1989. https://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/lean-on-me-1989
Ebert, 1995 — Ebert, R. (1995). Dangerous Minds. Roger Ebert.com. 11.08.1995. https://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/dangerous-minds-1995
Ebert, 1997 — Ebert, R. (1997). 187. Roger Ebert.com. 30.08.1997. http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/187-1997
Ebert, 1999 — Ebert, R. (1999). Election. Roger Ebert.com. 30.04.1999. http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/election-1999
Ebert, 2002 — Ebert, R. (2002). The Emperor’s Club. Roger Ebert.com. 22.11.2002. http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/the-emperors-club-2002
Ebert, 2006 — Ebert, R. (2006). Half Nelson. Roger Ebert.com. 14.09.2006. https://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/half-nelson-2006
Eco, 1998 — Eco, U. (1998). Lack of Structure. Introduction to Semiology. St. Petersburg: Petropolis, 432 p.
Eco, 2005 — Eco, U. (2005). The role of the reader. Research on the semiotics of the text. St. Petersburg: Symposium, 502 p.
Edelman, 1983 — Edelman, R. (1983). Teachers in the movies. American Educator, 26–31.
Ehlers, 1992 — Ehlers, M.G. (1992). The film depiction of America’s teachers, 1968–1983. M.A. Thesis, California State University, Fullerton.
Farber & Holm, 1994 — Farber, P., & Holm, G. (1994). A brotherhood of heroes: The charismatic educator in recent American movies. In: Farber, P., Provenzo, Jr., E.F. & Holm, G. (Eds.). Schooling in the light of popular culture. Albany: State University of New York Press, 153–172.
Farber & Holm, 1994 — Farber, P., & Holm, G. (1994). Adolescent freedom and the cinematic high school. In: Farber, P., Provenzo, Jr., E.F. & Holm, G. (Eds.). Schooling in the light of popular culture. Albany: State University of New York Press, 21–39.
Farber, Provenzo & Holm, 1994 — Farber, P., Provenzo, Jr., E. & Holm, G. (Eds.) (1994). Schooling in the Light of Popular Culture. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Farber, 2012 — Farber, S. (2012). Monsieur Lazhar. The Hollywood Reporter. 3.01.2012. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/monsieur-lazhar-277441
Farhi, 1999 — Farhi, A. (1999). Hollywood goes to school: Recognizing the superteacher myth in film. The Clearing House, 72(3), 157–159.
Fedorov et al., 2017 — Fedorov, A., Levitskaya, A., Gorbatkova, O. (2017). Directions, objectives, and author’s concepts of audiovisual media interpretations of school and university in the Soviet cinema of the “stagnation” period (1969–1985). Media Education, 3, 160–184.
Fedorov et al., 2017 — Fedorov, A., Levitskaya, A., Gorbatkova, O., Huston, E. (2017). Directions, goals, tasks, author’s concepts of audiovisual media interpretations of the topic of the school and university in the Russian cinema (1992–2017). Media Education, 4, 206–235
Fedorov et al., 2017 — Fedorov, A., Levitskaya, A., Gorbatkova, O., Mamadaliev, A. (2017). Directions, Objectives, and Author’s Concepts of Audiovisual Media Interpretations of School and University Theme in the Soviet Cinema of the “Thaw” Period (1956–1968). European Journal of Contemporary Education, 6(3), 516–529.
Festenberg, 2011 — Festenberg, N. (2011). Heilige mit Schmollmund. Spiegel. 26.08.2011. http://www.spiegel.de/kultur/tv/amoklauf-film-die-lehrerin-heilige-mit-schmollmund-a-781931.html
Galbraith, 1989 — Galbraith, J. (1989). Lean on Me. Variety. 31.01.1989. https://variety.com/1989/film/reviews/lean-on-me-1200428084/
Gauthier, 1996 — Gauthier, G. (1996). La representation des enseignants dans le cinéma français (1964 1994). Recherche et formation, 21, 43–57.
Gerbner, 1966 — Gerbner, G. (1966). Images across Cultures: Teachers in Mass Media Fiction and Drama. The School Review, 74, 2, 212–230.
Giroux, 1993 — Giroux, H. (1993). Reclaiming the Social: Pedagogy, Resistance, and Politics in Celluloid Culture. In: Collins, J., Radner, H. and Preacher Collins, A. (Eds.). Film Theory Goes to the Movies. New York: Routledge, 37–55.
Giroux, 1997 — Giroux, H. (1997). Race, pedagogy and whiteness in Dangerous Minds. Cineaste, 22: 4.
Goyette, 1996 — Goyette, L. (1996). Grandeur et décadence du Code Hays: The Children’s Hour. Séquences, 183, 49 p.
Grobman, 2002 — Grobman, D.J. (2002). Teachers in film: A narrative study of schoolteachers in cinema. Ed.D. Dis. Harvard University.
Guthmann, 1995 — Guthmann, E. (1997). Comedy Takes the Easy Way `Out’ / Pleasant film about outing plays it safe. 19.09.1997. http://www.sfgate.com/movies/article/Comedy-Takes-the-Easy-Way-Out-Pleasant-film-2805933.php
Hill, 1995 — Hill, D. (1995). Tinseltown Teachers. Teacher Magazine, 40–45.
Hinton, 1994 — Hinton, D.B. (1994). Celluloid ivy: Higher education in the movies 1960–1990. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press.
Hooks, 1996 — Hooks, B. (1996). ‘Making movie magic’, Reel to real: race, sex and class at the movies. New York, Routledge.
Howe, 1997 — Howe, D. (1997). ‘In & Out’s’ Half-Empty Closet. Washington Post. 19.09.1997. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/movies/review97/inandouthowe.htm
Howe, 1999 — Howe, D. (1999). Flunking ‘Mrs. Tingle’. Washington Post. 20.08.1999. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpsrv/style/movies/reviews/teachingmrstinglehowe.htm
Joseph & Burnaford, 1994 — Joseph, P. & Burnaford, G. (Eds.) (1994). Images of Schoolteachers in Twentieth-Century America. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Kehr, 2012 — Kehr, D. (2012). The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie. Chicago Reader. https://www.chicagoreader.com/chicago/the-prime-of-miss-jean-brodie/Film?oid=1064172
Kipp, 2005 — Kipp, J. (2005). The Blackboard Jungle. Slant. 23.05.2005. https://www.slantmagazine.com/film/review/the-blackboard-jungle
Kudryavtsev, 2008 — Kudryavtsev, S. (2008). Input and output. 3500 film reviews. Moscow: The Printing House. https://www.kinopoisk.ru/review/854664/
Nefedov, 2012 — Nefedov, E. (2012). Director. World Art. 12.06.2012. http://www.world-art.ru/cinema/cinema.php?id=13969
Kuipers, 2011 — Kuipers, R. (2011). To Sir, with Love. Urban Cinefile. http://www.urbancinefile.com.au/home/view.asp?a=3351&s=Reviews
Lafferty, 1945 — Lafferty, H.M. (1945). Hollywood versus the school teacher. School and Society, 62(1598), 92–94.
Laforest, 2002 — Laforest, K.L. (2002). In & Out. Montreal Film Journal. 1.05.2002. http://montrealfilmjournal.com/in-out/
LaSalle, 2002 — LaSalle, M. (2002). A class with life lessons. San Francisco Chronicle. 22.11.2002. http://www.sfgate.com/movies/article/A-class-with-life-lessons-Fiendish-student-2715485.php
Lasley, 1998 — Lasley, T.J. (1998). Paradigm shifts in the classroom. (movies about teachers and teaching). Phi Delta Kappan, 80(1), 84.
Leopard, 2007 — Leopard, D. (2007). Blackboard jungle: The ethnographic narratives of education on film. Cinema Journal, 46(4), 24–44.
Levy, 2011 — Levy, E. (2011). These Three. Emanuel Levy.Com. 27.07.2011. http://emanuellevy.com/review/these-three-1936/
Long, 1996 — Long, C.D. (1996). It came from Hollywood: Popular culture casts professors in a negative light. Academe, 82(4), 32–36.
Macdonald, 2007 — Macdonald, M. (2007). Quickly and shallowly skimming the surface. The Seattle Times. 5.01.2007.http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?slug=freedom05&date=20070105
MacKay, 1999 — MacKay, E. (1999). Stand and Deliver. Common Sense Media. 18.05.1999. https://www.commonsensemedia.org/movie-reviews/stand-and-deliver#
Martínez-Salanova, 2010 — Martínez-Salanova, E. (2010). Educational Systems in the Heterodox History of European Cinema. Comunicar, 35, v. XVIII, 53–59.
Mayerle, J. & Rarick, 1989 — Mayerle, J. & Rarick, D. (1989). The image of education in primetime network television series 1948–1988. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 33(2), 139–157.
McCullick et al., 2003 — McCullick, B., Belcher, D., Hardin, B., Hardin, M. (2003). Butches, bullies and buffoons: Images of physical education teachers in the movies. Sport, Education and Society, 8(1), 3–16.
McManus, 1995 — McManus, K. (1995). Dangerous Minds. Washington Post. 11.08.1995. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/movies/videos/dangerousmindsrmcmanus_c027c4.htm
Mitchell & Weber, — Mitchell, C. & Weber, S. (1999). Reinventing Ourselves as Teachers. Philadelphia: Falmer Press.
MPPC, 1930 — MPPC (1930): The Motion Picture Production Code of 1930 (Hays Code). http://www.artsreformation.com/a001/hays-code.html
Newman, 2001 — Newman, V. (2001). Cinema, women teachers, and the 1950s and 1960s. Educational Studies, 32(4), 416–438.
Newman, 2006 — Newman, K. (2006). The Blackboard Jungle. Empire. 28.04.2006. https://www.empireonline.com/movies/blackboard-jungle/review/
Nour, 2017 — Nour, S. (2017). 5 Older Films With All-Female Casts. Reel Rundown. 07.09.2017. https://reelrundown.com/film-industry/5-Older-Films-With-All-Female-Casts
Obzorkin, 2009 — Obzorkin, F. (2009). They are here: The last lesson. Review of the cinema. 2009. 18.11.2009. http://www.obzorkino.tv/2009/11/18/la-journee-de-la-jupe/
Solovyov, 2012 — Solovyov, A.I. (2012). The image of the teacher in the cinema: West versus East. Media and modern culture / under the total. Minsk: Belarus State University.
Paul, 2001 — Paul, D.G. (2001). The blackboard jungle: Critically interrogating Hollywood’s vision of the urban classroom. MultiCultural Review, 10(1), 20–27, 58–60.
Potter, 2001 — Potter, W.J. (2001). Media Literacy. Thousand Oaks — London: Sage Publication, 423 p.
Putman, 1998 — Putman, D. (1998). Hell High. The movie Boy. http://www.themovieboy.com/reviews/h/86_hellhigh.htm
Raimo et al., 2002 — Raimo, A., Devlin-Scherer, R., Zinicola, D. (2002). Learning about teachers through film. The Educational Forum, 66(4), 314–323.
Rea, 2012 — Rea, S. (2012). ‘Monsieur Lazhar’: A meditation on the teacher-student relationship. The Inquirer. 27.04.2012. http://www.philly.com/philly/entertainment/movies/20120427__Monsieur_Lazhar___A_meditation_on_the_teacher-student_relationship.html
Reed, 1989 — Reed, J. (1989). Let’s Bum the High School. In: American Scenarios: The Uses of Film Genre. Middleton, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 132–159.
Reed, 2015 — Reed, R. (2015). Woody Allen’s Waning Wisdom. Observer. http://observer.com/2015/07/woody-allens-waning-wisdom/
Reyes & Rios, 2003 — Reyes, X. A. & Rios, D. I. (2003). Imaging teachers: In fact and in the mass media. Journal of Latinos and Education, 2(1), 3–11.
Reynolds, 2007 — Reynolds, P.J. (2007). The “reel” Professoriate: The portrayal of professors in American film, 1930–1950. ProQuest.
Reynolds, 2009 — Reynolds, P.J. (2009). The celluloid ceiling: Women academics, social expectations, and narrative in 1940s American film. Gender and Education, 21(2), 209–224.
Reynolds, 20014 — Reynolds, P.J. (2014). Representing “U”: Popular culture, cedia, and higher education. ASHE Higher Education Report, 40(4), 1–145.
Reynolds, 2015 — Reynolds, P.J. (2015). The (a)sexual academic: University faculty in the movies from 1927–2014. SRHE Annual Research Conference, 9–11 December 2015. https://www.srhe.ac.uk/conference2015/abstracts/0174.pdf
Rhodes, 1997 — Rhodes, S. (1997). One Eight Seven. rec.arts.movies.reviews
Robertson, 1995 — Robertson, J.P. (1995). Screenplay Pedagogy and the Interpretation of Unexamined Knowledge in PreService Primary Teaching. Taboo: A Journal of Culture and Education.
Robertson, 1997 — Robertson, J.P. (1997). Fantasy’s Confines: Popular Culture and the Education of the Female Primary School Teacher. Canadian Journal of Education, 22 (2), 123–43.
Rooney, 2013 — Rooney, D. (2013). A Teacher: Sundance Review. The Hollywood Reporter. 18.01.2013. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/review/a-teacher-sundance-review-413567
Rosen, 2004 — Rosen, J. (2004). Defiant negotiations with celluloid colleagues: Broaching pre-service teachers’ aspirations for and apprehensions of teaching through a dialogue with teacher images in film. Ph.D. Dis. The University of Western Ontario
Ryan, 2008 — Ryan, P.A. (2008). Image of the teacher in the postwar United States. Ph.D. Dis. University of Florida, 193 p.
Sayer, 1974 — Sayer, N. (1974). Film: ‘Conrack,’ Story of a Teacher. The New York Times. 28.03.1974. http://www.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9802E6DA1E3AEF34BC4051DFB566838F669EDE&partner=Rotten%2520Tomatoes
Schwartz, 2003 — Schwartz, D. (2003). Its content is still provocative. Ozus’ World Movie Reviews. 13.06.2003. http://homepages.sover.net/~ozus/maidensinuniform.htm
Schwartz, 2005 — Schwartz, D. (2005). Tells us as much about teaching as Einstein’s Theory of Relativity tells us about football. Ozus’ World Movie Reviews. 15.09.2005. http://homepages.sover.net/~ozus/blackboardjungle.htm
Schwartz, 2005 — Schwartz, D. (2005). The Film is intelligent, sensitive and in its own uniquely quiet way quite a delicious treat. Ozus’ World Movie Reviews. 3.10.2005. http://homepages.sover.net/~ozus/whennightisfalling.htm
Schwartz, 2014 — Schwartz, D. (2014). Heavy-handed and can’t shake its languor. Ozus’ World Movie Reviews. 26.08.2014. http://homepages.sover.net/~ozus/childrenshour.html
Schwartz, 1960 — Schwartz, J. (1960). The portrayal of educators in motion pictures, 1950–58. Journal of Educational Sociology, 34(2), 82–90.
Schwartz, 1963 — Schwartz, J. (1963). The Portrayal of Education in American Motion Pictures, 1931–1961. Ph.D. Dis. University of Illinois.
Schwarzbaum, 1997 — Schwarzbaum, L. (1997). In and Out. Entertainment Weekly. 26.09.1997. http://ew.com/article/1997/09/26/out-3/
Schwarzbaum, 1999 — Schwarzbaum, L. (1999). Election. Entertainment Weekly. 30.04.1999. http://ew.com/article/1999/04/30/election-3/
Shepherd, 2008 — Shepherd, D. (2008). Indian Summer. San Diego Reader. https://www.sandiegoreader.com/movies/indian-summer-1/#
Shiyanov, 2008 — Shiyanov, M. (2008). Experiment 2. Time Out. http://www.timeout.ru/msk/artwork/135988/review
Silverblatt, 2001 — Silverblatt, A. (2001). Media Literacy. Westport, Connecticut — London: Praeger, 449 p.
Spring, 1992 — Spring, J. (1992). Images of American life: A history of ideological management in schools, movies, radio, and television. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Swetnam, 1992 — Swetnam, L.A. (1992). Media distortion of the teacher image. Clearing House, 66(1), 30.
Tan, 1999 — Tan, A.G.A. (1999). The image of teachers in film. Ph.D. Dis. Boston College.
Tatulescu, 2011 — Tatulescu, P. (2011). Gender and Identity at Boarding Schools: Outcast Teachers in Maedchen in Uniform (1958) vs Loving Annabelle (2006). CINEJ Cinema Journal, 1, 141–147.
Thomsen, 1993 — Thomsen, S.R. (1993). A worm in the apple: Hollywood’s influence on the public’s perception of teachers. The Joint Meeting of the Southern States Communication Association and the Central States Communication Association, Lexington, KY.
Travers, 2002 — Travers, J. (2002). Risky Business. Film de France.com. http://www.filmsdefrance.com/review/les-risques-du-metier-1967.html
Trier, 2000 — Trier, J.D. (2000). Using Popular “School Films” To Engage Student Teachers in Critical Reflection. Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 24–28, 2000. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED444993.pdf
Trier, 2001 — Trier, J.D. (2001). The cinematic representation of the personal and professional lives of teachers. Teacher Education Quarterly, 28(3), 127–142.
Tsyrkun, 2015 — Tsyrkun, N. (2015). Summer with Lucas. Cinema Art. 14.08.2015. http://kinoart.ru/blogs/leto-s-lukasom
Tucciarone, 2007 — Tucciarone, K. M. (2007). Community college image — By Hollywood. Community College Enterprise, 13(1), 37–53.
Ukhov, 2014 — Ukhov, E. (2014). Frost on the skin. Film.ru. 21.04.2014. https://www.film.ru/articles/moroz-po-kozhe
Umphlett, 1984 — Umphlett, W. L. (1984). The movies go to college: Hollywood and the world of the college-life film. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.
Urban, 2009 — Urban, A.L. (2009). The Wave. UrbanCinefile. http://www.urbancinefile.com.au/home/view.asp?a=15508&s=DVD
Vasquez, 2016 — Vasquez, F. (2016). Class of 1984.Cinema Crazed. 13.01.2016. http://cinema-crazed.com/blog/2016/01/13/class-of-1984-1982/
Volobuev, 2009 — Volobuev, R. (2009). A pamphlet about the besieged French school. Afisha. 30.09.2009. https://www.afisha.ru/movie/196476/review/295044/
Zabaluev, 2015 — Zabaluev, J. (2015). Dostoevsky on the beach. Newspaper.ru. 14.08.2015. https://www.gazeta.ru/culture/2015/08/14/a_7687390.shtml
Kolodyazhnaya, 1975 — Kolodyazhnaya, V.S. (1975). William Wyler. Moscow: Art, 143 p.
Wallace, 2009 — Wallace, L. (2009). Lesbianism, Cinema, Space. The Sexual Life of Apartments. New York: Routledge, 202 p.
Wasylkiw & Currie, 2012 — Wasylkiw, L. & Currie, M. (2012). The “Animal House” effect: How university-themed comedy films affect students’ attitudes. Social Psychology of Education, 15(1), 25–40.
Watson, 1990 — Watson, R. (1990). Film and television in education: An aesthetic approach to the moving image. London/New York: The Falmer Press.
Weiler, 1972 — Weiler, A.H. (1972). French Love Story: A Boy and a Woman. The New York Times. 21.02.1972.http://www.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9A05E3D6163EE63ABC4951DFB4668389669EDE?
Weinberg, 2004 — Weinberg, S. (2004). Devil in the Flesh. Film Critic. 30.04.2004. http://www.efilmcritic.com/review.php?movie=9515&reviewer=128
Weinberg, 2006 — Weinberg, S. (2006). Evilenko. DVD Talk. 18.02.2006. https://www.dvdtalk.com/reviews/20244/evilenko/
Weinstein, 1998 — Weinstein, P.B. (1998). The practice and ideals of education as portrayed in American films, 1939–1989. Ph.D. Dis. Ohio University.
Wells & Serman, 1998 — Wells, A.S. & Serman, T.W. (1998). Education against all odds: What films teach us about schools. In: Maeroff, G.I. (Ed.). Imaging education: The media and schools in America. New York: Teachers College Press, 181–194.
Wideen et al., 1998 — Wideen, M., Mayer-Smith, J., Moon, B. (1998). Critical Analysis of the Research on Learning to Teach: Making the Case for an Ecological Perspective on Inquiry. Review of Educational Research, 68(2), 130–178.
Williams, 2012 — Williams, J. (2012). French school drama has effective ending. St.-Louis Post-Dispatchc. 1.06.2012. http://www.stltoday.com/entertainment/movies/reviews/french-school-drama-has-effective-ending/article_d5b71c8e-2de6-5470-b08d-4cfa04cdadcb.html
Wilson, 1986 — Wilson, D.A. (1986). What is the teacher’s television image? The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 52(2), 6–10.
Zeichner, 1990 — Zeichner, K. (1990). Educational and Social Commitments in Reflective Teacher Education Programs. In: Proceedings of the National Forum of the Association of Independent Liberal Arts Colleges for Teacher Education. 4th, Milwaukee, Nov. 9–1.